The land of Hanoi is inhabited thousands of years ago, but the name of Hanoi is only from 1831. Originally from 1010, King Ly Thai To moved the capital to Dai La, changed the name of this city. Thang Long. At that time, the capital of Hoan Kiem District was part of two districts of Dong Da and Hai Ba Trung. Then Thang Long territory gradually expanded and by the end of the 18th century, corresponding to five districts in the city now. In 1802, the Nguyen Dynasty ascended the throne to Hue, Thang Long was no longer the capital and soon after the change was called Hoai Duc.
In 1831, there was a major administrative reform: the removal of towns, the establishment of provinces. From then came Ha Noi. This is called because the new province is located within the (inner) two rivers (hà) which is the Red River and Day River, consisting of 4 capitals and 15 districts. The capital is located in the ancient city of Thang Long, so Thang Long is known as the city of Hanoi, and in short, Hanoi.
In 1883, France occupied Hanoi. In 1886 they established "Hanoi City", initially only 3 km2, in 1939 is 12 km2 with a population of 30 thousand.
Back to the new Ly Thai To new capital, legend has it that when King Ly to the Cai river wharf (another name of Hong), there is a golden dragon on the river and then up high. King named for a good omen, named new capital is Thang Long (Dragon up). The story of the "Dragon Rising" that speaks of the rising power of the new capital is stepping into the historical arena, embracing the mission of the heart of a country that has had thousands of years to build.
From here Thang Long recorded many glorious victories!
In the thirteenth century, Thang Long thrice "made into empty houses" put the Nguyen invaders into the hungry, passive, and then swept away from the realm.
By the beginning of the 15th century, the country was once again wiped out. Thang Long became the ultimate decisive point against the invaders. After ten years of insurrection, in 1427 Le Loi sent troops to Thang Long to close the Ming aggression. Overwhelmed by the air force and the strength of the insurgents, the Ming generals swore at the south gate, surrendered, and were allowed to withdraw all soldiers back home.
At the Tay Son insurrection, it was Thang Long itself where the hero "cloth chess" Nguyen Hue recorded many victories, the most glorious of which was the victory of Dong Da in 1789. With the speedy operation, In that year, Tay Son insurgents destroyed 30 thousand soldiers of Man Thanh invasion. And in that victory there was a contribution of the Thang Long people.
In the early 19th century, the Nguyen Dynasty (from 1802-1945) was based in Hue. Thang Long became the capital of Hanoi. But Hanoi is still the most literary place in the country, being the nation's leading arts, industry, commerce, wealth, population, politeness and culture. . . In short, this is the heart of the whole nation.
When the French colonialists took over Vietnam, it was in Hanoi that the French rebels faced the strongest resistance. Hanoi people stand up against the yoke. The high point of the movement was that on August 19, 1945, Hanoi revolted the establishment of the revolutionary government, beginning the General Rebellion on the national scale. Half a month later, on September 2, 1945, in Ba Dinh Square, President Ho Chi Minh read the declaration of independence, officially gave birth to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and Hanoi is the capital of the country .
But the French colonialists again invaded Vietnam a second time. Thus, on December 19, 1946, the army and the people of Hanoi stepped up to fight the French in the beginning of the national resistance period of 9 years. On 7 May 1954 victory over Dien Bien Phu, French troops completely failed. Five years later, 10/10/1954 Hanoi was liberated and Hanoi remained the heart of Vietnam.
In 1965, Hanoi fiercely attacked the US sabotage war by air. Especially 12 days and nights in late 1972, Hanoi smashed the strategic bombardment by the largest air force of the American empire, making the famous "Dien Bien Phu aerial", and together with the country forced the empire The United States must end the war of aggression in Vietnam.
By 1975, with the historic Ho Chi Minh campaign, the South was completely liberated, the country was unified. In July 1976, at the first session of the Sixth National Assembly, the National Assembly decided to take Hanoi as the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Source: Tong Hop